Two Vaccines For COVID-19 May Be Ready By The End Of 2020. Here s What To Know

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Here are the top vaccine contenders and what they mean for you.

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[/tech-for-a-better-world/ This story is part of Tech for a Better World, stories about the diverse teams creating products, apps and services to improve our lives and society.]With just one month left in 2020, it appears at least two [ coronavirus] vaccines will be authorized for use in the US before the new year: US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer, which claims its vaccine candidate [ demonstrated 95% effectiveness] in clinical trials, [ applied last week for authorization] from the Food and Drug Administration to distribute the vaccine in the US. Moderna, another US drug developer, [ says its vaccine is 94% effective] and that it [/news/moderna-seeks-fda-emergency-approval-for-coronavirus-vaccine/ applied for FDA authorization] this week as well. Each vaccine requires an initial dose plus a subsequent "booster" dose several weeks later.
Both are [/news/coronavirus-mrna-vaccines-wont-just-end-the-pandemic-they-could-change-vaccines-forever/ mRNA vaccine candidates] and will most likely be the first to receive [ Food and Drug Administration authorization], [/how-to/covid-19-vaccines-will-arrive-soon-but-you-could-be-last-in-line-heres-who-will-get-one-first/ arriving for some people before 2021]. Another vaccine in development by Oxford University and biotech firm AstraZeneca is not yet as effective as the other two, [/news/oxford-coronavirus-vaccine-is-70-effective-on-average-researchers-say/ Oxford University announced last week]. It's likely that Oxford's vaccine -- as well as a [ handful of others not far behind it] -- will also seek FDA authorization in the coming weeks and months. Novavax, which some are calling the [ most promising of the bunch], is delayed, but [ still moving ahead].

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Pfizer, if authorized, expects to produce up to 50 million vaccine doses in 2020, and 1.3 billion in 2021. Moderna plans to ship 20 million doses in 2020 and another 500 million to 1 billion in 2021, if authorized. With over 330 million people in the US alone, not everyone will be able to get a vaccine at once
 -- the first doses to reach the market will likely go to health care personnel, followed by essential workers, people with underlying medical conditions and older adults. 

Currently, there are [ 67 coronavirus vaccines] in various stages of clinical trials, with a handful almost ready to apply for authorization. Most experts believe we'll have several more [ ready to distribute by early 2021], but it may not be until 2022 that life starts to get back to normal.

Here, we walk you through the leading coronavirus vaccine news and explain where the most promising candidates stand. This article is updated frequently and is intended to be a general overview, not a source of medical advice. If you're seeking more information about coronavirus testing, [/health/coronavirus-testing-near-me-how-to-find-covid-19-test-sites-and-wait-times/ here's how to find a testing site near you].

Until a vaccine arrives, coronavirus cases are expected to surge.

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Important COVID-19 vaccine news  Cases of Pfizer's vaccine have started shipping across the US, with the first shipment [ delivered to Chicago] late last week.The US is averaging over 157,000 new cases of COVID-19 per day, [ based on a seven-day average.]Dr. Anthony Fauci predicts a "surge upon a surge" of COVID-19 infections in coming weeks, with the nation's top infectious disease expert [ pinning much of the blame] on people gathering for the holidays.None of the volunteers who received Moderna's vaccine developed severe COVID-19, according to an [ analysis by the peer-reviewed journal Science].Consumer spending seems to be trending upward as the prospect of a COVID-19 vaccine approaches, [ according to some economists]. COVID-19 vaccine development has been lightning-fast

Several acceleration efforts are currently underway, like the [ White House's Operation Warp Speed], which is meant to cut through regulatory red tape to speed up vaccine development and be ready to distribute vaccines as soon as they receive FDA authorization. So far, the US government has [ pledged over $10 billion] to several vaccine manufacturers to secure a total of 800 million vaccine doses.

Experts say recent surges in coronavirus cases aren't merely the result of the US doing more testing, du lịch ba li as a higher percentage of those tested are coming up positive compared to earlier stages of the pandemic.

James Martin/CNET

Vaccines typically take about [ 10 to 15 years to develop] and approve, through four phases that include [ human trials]. But with Operation Warp Speed, approved vaccine projects can submit data to the FDA bit by bit, rather than submitting all the data from a four-phase trial all at once.

Meanwhile, the program is also financially backing efforts to start manufacturing doses while clinical trials are still ongoing. That means if and when those vaccines do get authorized, there will already be a store of doses ready to distribute nationally. 
Other promising coronavirus vaccines around the world
Here's a quick look at some of the frontrunners besides Pfizer and Moderna in the race to find a vaccine for COVID-19, including where the vaccines are being developed, where they are on testing them, and when scientists think they might be ready for widespread distribution, if known.

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Oxford University/AstraZeneca (UK): AstraZeneca began testing on [ 100,000 human volunteers in at least three countries]. Lead researcher Dr. Sarah Gilbert had initially said AstraZeneca is [ aiming for a fall 2020 release] and, while that may be optimistic at this point after the trial was briefly paused to investigate a participant's illness, it doesn't appear to be significantly delayed. It's currently 70% effective on average.

Sinovac (China): Currently testing its vaccine on about [ 10,000 human volunteers in China] and [ about 9,000 in Brazil] and is set to begin testing on about [ 1,900 test subjects in Indonesia] soon. Honesti Basyir, the president of Bio Farma, Sinovac's Indonesian partner, has said he expects the vaccine to be [ ready by early 2021].

Sinopharm (China): Currently testing about [ 15,000 volunteers in the Middle East] in a trial the state-owned company expects to last three to six months. Early [ results suggest the drug is safe] and at least somewhat effective. Sinopharm recently built a [ second facility to manufacture the vaccine], doubling its capacity to about 200 million doses per year.

CanSino Biologics (China): Set to begin large-scale [ human trials this summer], CanSino's vaccine has already been [ approved for the Chinese military]. The vaccine is based on a modified common cold virus, which [ some experts warn] could make it less effective than other vaccine efforts.

Wearing a face mask remains the surest way of preventing transmission of the coronavirus.

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How many vaccines will the US need?
We probably won't know until next year, but Fauci has suggested we might require [ several different vaccines] made and distributed by different labs to bring an end to the pandemic, in a [ paper published May 11 in the journal Science]. He also has said he foresees different [ vaccines being given to different patient populations]. For example, one vaccine for elderly or other high-risk patients, another for healthy adults and another for children.
What if people don't trust the vaccines?
Getting one or more vaccines through clinical trials to FDA approval is just the first leg of the journey. The next is convincing people to take it. Sixty-three percent of US adults expressed safety concerns over a coronavirus vaccine, according to a [ Harris Poll] from Oct. 19, with 40% of respondents specifically worrying that development has been too fast. Some people are reportedly [ concerned about possible side effects].

Life in the US will begin to return to normal once we reach what scientists call "[ herd immunity]," which, with regard to the coronavirus, means at least 60% to 70% of the population is immune. So long as enough people take the vaccine to reach that level, it won't matter if a few people object or decline to take the vaccine for other reasons, for example, if they aren't healthy enough to be vaccinated.

Most experts expect a vaccine for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, by 2021.

James Martin/CNET
What to do until a coronavirus vaccine is approved?
Coronaviruses are a large class of viruses and [ so far there are no vaccines] for any of them. While there are promising early results, there's no guarantee a vaccine will be ready by 2021. Statistically, only about 6% of vaccine candidates ever make it through to market, [ according to a Reuters report] from April. However, health officials are very optimistic that the Pfizer vaccine and others like it [ could end the coronavirus pandemic].

Whether or not COVID-19 vaccines are effective at stopping the spread of coronavirus will depend a lot on how our bodies build immunity to the disease. Here's what we know so far about whether or not you can [/health/covid-19-reinfection-can-you-get-the-coronavirus-more-than-once-what-we-know-so-far/ get COVID-19 more than once]. Testing is also key to slowing coronavirus' spread -- learn about a device that can produce results in [/news/covid-test-your-whole-family-from-home-on-one-device/ under 90 minutes here]. Finally, read about how all of these issues and more weigh in on US President-elect Joseph [/how-to/biden-has-a-plan-to-fight-covid-19-heres-what-we-know/ Biden's plan to fight COVID-19].

The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.

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